Bitter sweet_ how sustainable is bio-ethanol production in brazil_ – documents

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3599– 3603

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ding author. Sugar and cancer Tel.: +32 (0)9 264 46 95; fax: +32 (0)9 264 49 85.

bio-ethanol worldwide, after the United States [1]. Sugar candy store The total Brazil’s

bio-ethanol production in 2011 was estimated around 32.5 billion

litres of which 90% was consumed by Brazil itself. Sugarcane miami The total export

A simple de?nition of biofuels is that they are fuels derived from

biological sources [3]. Health benefits of sugarcane The production of ethanol is possible from

any biological feedstock that contains a certain amount of sugar or

materials (e.g. Sugar cane farm starch) that can be transformed into sugar. Sugarcane juice machine Products

that contain sugar are, for example, sugar beets and sugarcane, but

also corn, wheat and other cereals contain starch.


Sugarcane juice benefits For the focus of

this paper, we will only discuss sugarcane which, in Brazil, is the

most commonly used crop to produce ethanol. Sugar cane juicer The sugarcane has

to undergo fermentation and becomes alcohol by using yeasts and

other microbes. Raw sugar vs white sugar At the ?nal stage, the right concentration of ethanol

has to be regulated in order to be blended with gasoline [3].

The issue of bio-ethanol is very complicated and has led to many

debates [4–9]. Sugar cosmetics With regard to Brazil, bio-ethanol is highly promoted

by different actors and also frequently being questioned because of

Azadia,?, Sanne de Jongb, Ben Deruddera, Philippe De Maeyera, Frank Witloxa

Relations and International Organisations, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

While biofuels have currently been regarded as a good alternative for fossil fuels, there remain many

debates on their impacts on human and environment. Sugar pine This paper tried to shed light on bio-ethanol in

Brazil as one of the main producers and exporters in the world. Sugar pine point state park The main question was to understand

“how sustainable is bio-ethanol production in Brazil?” To answer, the political motives of producing bio-

ethanol followed by its ecological and socio-economic impacts were discussed. Sugar pine railroad The paper concluded that

although bio-ethanol production in Brazil seems environmentally friendly, it might socio-economically

uction . . . . . Sugar sin . . . . . Sugar restaurant . . . . . Popsugar careers . . . . . Cane sugar . . . . . Sugar cane . . . . . Unrefined cane sugar . . . . . Brown cane sugar . . . . . White cane sugar . . . . . Sugar cane processing . . . . . Brown sugar cane . . . . . Planting sugar cane . . . . . Cane sugar nutrition . . . . . Sugar cane growing . . . . . Cane sugar healthy . . . . . Sugar cane healthy . . . . . Cane sugar benefits . . . . . Processing sugar cane . . . . . Sugar cane skewers . . . . . Sugar cane honey . . . . . How to plant sugar cane . . . . . Sugar cane food . . . . . Is cane sugar bad for you . . . . . Cane sugar vs white sugar . . . . . Beet sugar vs cane sugar . . . . . Red sugar cane . . . . . Where is sugar cane grown . . . . . Sugar cane industry . . . What is sugar cane used for 3599

3600 H. Is cane sugar healthy Azadi et al. Cane sugar vs brown sugar / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3599– 3603

its effects [10–16]. Is cane sugar good for you Among all, one of the main important questions,

as for the main focus of this paper, is “how sustainable is the bio-

This paper is divided into two parts: the ?rst section discusses

why bio-ethanol is being produced in Brazil. Cane sugar vs sugar This will shortly clarify

the political motives for producing and using bio-ethanol. Maui sugar cane The sec-

ond section examines the sustainability of producing bio-ethanol in

the country by looking at the environmental, social and economic

regard [23]. Is cane sugar bad Both the States and the EU have become more depen-

dent on the Brazilian bio-ethanol that leads to a stronger position

d indirect land use change associated with expanded use of biofuels

in the EU – An analysis of the national renewable energy action plans.

H. What is evaporated cane sugar Azadi et al. Cane sugar vs beet sugar / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3599– 3603 3601

amount of agricultural land, occurs for a large part in the Center-

West region of the country where the climate is ideal to produce

sugarcane. Brown sugar vs cane sugar Because of the bio-ethanol market, the soybean produc-

tion may be replaced by sugarcane. Sugar beet vs sugar cane Farmers who produce soybeans

may move further to the North next to the Amazon region. What is pure cane sugar This

means that the production of sugarcane can indirectly lead to defor-

estation in the Amazon region. Calories in cane sugar However, because the amount of

land for soybean is far more than sugarcane, the indirect linkage to

the States is 40% higher than in Brazil.7 The improved technologies

in the biofuels sector and the increasing price of fossil fuels make

this sector relatively more competitive in comparison to fossil fuels

w.mo.be /’Brazil, ethanol’, (mondiaal nieuws), 27 oktober 2009,

o.be/artikel/brazilie-wil-ethanolproductie-vertwaalfvoudigen-

w.mo.be /’Brazil, ethanol’, (mondiaal nieuws), 27 oktober 2009,

o.be/artikel/brazilie-wil-ethanolproductie-vertwaalfvoudigen-

3602 H. Cane vs beet sugar Azadi et al. How is sugar cane grown / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3599– 3603

distribution problem though some studies show that such state-

ments might be biased [36–39], especially when bearing in mind

that BP has invested over a billion in research and development of

As stated earlier, the bio-ethanol production will lead to more

jobs. How is sugar cane processed However, the sugarcane industry has to be mechanized in

order to eliminate (e.g.) the burning, which results in negative

[2] GAIN Report, Brazil Biofuels Annual 2010. Organic cane sugar vs white sugar GAIN Report BR10006, USDA Foreign

[3] IEA (International Energy Agency). How to make sugar cane Biofuels for transport. Cane sugar vs refined sugar An international per-

[4] Escobar JC, Lora ES, Venturini OJ, Yanez EE, Castillo EF, Almazan O. Benefits of cane sugar Biofuels:

A, Merbis MD, Voortman RL. How to use sugar cane The biofuel controversy. Difference between cane sugar and white sugar De Economist

ent, technology and food security. Sugar cane history Renewable and Sustainable Energy

han KR, Chan E-S, Ravindra P. Is cane sugar refined Harnessing biofuels: a global renais-

ra MED, Vaughan BE, Rykiel Jr EJ. Cane sugar vs granulated sugar Ethanol as fuel: energy, carbon

alances, and ecological footprint. Sugar cane harvest season BioScience 2005;55:593–602.

Gallagher review of the indirect effects of biofuels production. What does sugar cane look like East

omes MS, de Araujo MSM. White sugar vs cane sugar Bio-fuels production and the environmen-

tors. Pure cane sugar vs granulated sugar Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2009;13:2201–4.

P, van de Vooren J. Cane sugar calories Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change

n and the environment. Is cane sugar brown sugar Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publish-

n der Voet E, Huppes G. Cane sugar vs regular sugar Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost-

ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil. What is a sugar cane Renewable and Sustainable Energy

, Graeff-Honninger S, Claupein W. Sugar vs cane sugar The impact of a growing bioethanol

tos S, Severino L, Beltrao N. How long does it take to grow sugar cane Brazilian biofuels and social exclusion:

ed and concentrated ethanol versus emerging and dispersed biodiesel.

E, Olarreaga M. Granulated sugar vs cane sugar Sugar prices, labor income, and poverty in Brazil.

M. Cane sugar ?? Social sustainability of the Brazilian bioethanol: power relations

e-periphery perspective. Is cane sugar the same as brown sugar Biomass and Bioenergy 2011;35:2425–34.

, Junginger M, Faaij A, Walter A, Dolzan P. Sugar cane vs sugar beet Sustainability of Brazil-

thanol. Cane sugar meaning Technology and Society Report NWS-E-2006-110, Copernicus

, Donzan P, Quilodran O, de Oliveira JG, da Silva C, Piacente F, et al.

ility assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil: considering

change. Sugarcane or sugar cane GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects. Is cane sugar better Energy Policy

orld energy outlook. How to plant sugar cane minecraft Paris, France: International Energy Agency;

vailable at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/

fuels, linking support to performance. White rice sugar content Paris: International Transport

imes. What is inverted cane sugar US opens market for Brazilian ethanol. Sugarcane in pakistan Sam Cowie, December

Available at: http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-business/us-

JH, Verbong GPJ, Raven RPJM. Sugar cane alcohol Biofuel developments in Sweden and

rlands protection and socio-technical change in a long-term perspec-

. Benefits of drinking sugarcane juice Brazil’s second change. Inverted cane sugar En route toward the ?rst world. Sugar cane products crossword Washington,

vironmental and social challenges. Cane sugar alcohol Ecological Applications 2008;18:

G, Barretto A, Berndes G, Martins S, Maule R. Cane sugar allergy Environmental, land-

conomic implications of Brazilian sugarcane expansion 1996–2006.

n and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2008;14:285–98.

da EF, Bomtempo JV, de Souza E Silva CM. Granulated cane sugar The performance of Brazil-

els: an economic, environmental and social analysis. Is cane sugar vegan International

eals per Gallon. Sugar and cancer 2016 The impact of industrial biofuels on people and global

, Yackulic CB, Cooper T, Flynn D, Cortes M, Crk T, et al. Sugar cane liquor Expansion

ane production in Sao Paulo, Brazil: implications for ?re occurrence

iratory health. Sugar sugar candy girl Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2009;132:

fuel support policies. Sugar cane grinder An economic assessment. Brazilian sugar cane liquor Paris: OECD; 2008.

, Bickel U, Garbers F, Goldfarb L, Schneider V. Cane sugar vegan Agrofuels in Brazil.

inable bioenergy: A framework for decision makers, United Nations.

nk. Cane sugar soda Rising food prices: Policy options and World Bank response;

vailable at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/

How the other half dies. Sugar cane song The real reasons for world hunger. Sugar candy girl New York:

E. Sugar cane maui The conditions of agricultural growth. Sugar content in beetroot The economics of Agrarian

nder population pressure. Sugar content of beets New Jersey: Transaction Publishers; 2005.

H. Natural cane sugar Azadi et al. Sugar sugar you are my candy girl / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3599– 3603 3603

[36] Azadi H, Ho H. Sugar cane growers cooperative Genetically modi?ed and organic crops in developing coun-

tries: a review of options for food security. Sugarcane in australia Biotechnology Advances 2010;28:

[37] Azadi H, Talsma N, Ho P, Zarafshani K. Candy girl sugar sugar GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to

increase agricultural performance. Sugarcane miami menu Trends in Biotechnology 2011;29:6–8.

[38] Azadi H, Schoonbeek S, Mahmoudi H, Derudder B, De Maeyer P, Witlox F.

Organic agriculture and sustainable food production system: main potentials.

[39] Bazuin S, Azadi H, Witlox F. Hey sugar candy store Application of GM crops in Sub-Saharan

Africa: lessons learned from Green Revolution. Link between sugar and cancer Biotechnology Advances

[40] Nelson AJ. Sugar you are my candy girl Climate change and biofuels. Sugar cane growers cooperative of florida Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson

[41] Smeets E, Junginger M, Faaij A, Walter A, Dolzan P. That sugarcane that tasted good Sustainability of Brazilian

bio-ethanol. Sugarcane restaurant miami Utrecht, the Netherlands/Sao Paulo, Brazil: Copernicus Insti-

Bitter sweet: How sustainable is bio-ethanol production in Brazil?

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