Color-changing chemistry

Magic show or chemistry lab? Sometimes it’s hard to tell the difference! Chemical reactions often produce spectacular color changes that appear to happen just by magic. Fresh apple pie recipe with crumb topping Now is your chance to put some tricks up your sleeve and wow your friends with scientific sleight of hand.

( NOTE: Some of the chemicals used in these projects can be hazardous if misused. Recipe for crumb topping apple pie Use caution when working with chemicals! Read the information on the chemical label before you start, and always wear protective safety equipment such as goggles, gloves, and aprons.

Best crumb top apple pie recipe Adult supervision required.)

Can you get a liquid to change color simply by pouring it into another container? What You Need:

• Put 25 drops of universal indicator into the first flask, and then add 200ml of water.

• Add a dropper-full of ammonia to the third flask. Recipe for apple pie crumb topping (Be very careful not to breathe in the strong fumes from the ammonia!)

• Slowly pour the contents of the first flask into the second one, then the second into the third and the third into the fourth.

The secret of this magic color change is pH. Dutch apple pie with crumb topping recipes Chemicals with a low pH (0-6) are acidic, while those with a high pH (8-14) are basic. (A pH of 7 is neutral: neither acidic nor basic.) Universal indicator is a chemical that changes color in the presence of acids and bases from a pH of 2 to 10. Recipe for crumb topping on apple pie Acids turn the indicator red, pink, orange, and yellow, while bases turn it green, blue, and purple. Recipe apple pie crumb topping Vinegar is an acid, so when you poured the indicator solution into the second flask, it turned red. Apple pie crumb topping recipe Ammonia is a base, so when you mixed the acidic vinegar solution with ammonia, it raised the pH and the water turned blue. Apple pie crumb topping recipe best If you had enough vinegar in your last flask, the solution should have turned red again. French apple crumb pie recipe (If it didn’t, try adding a little more vinegar.)

Can you pour red “kool-aid” out of a pitcher of water? Try it out and impress your audience – just don’t drink the finished product! What You Need:

• In the first glass put a little less than 1/8 teaspoon of sodium carbonate, in the second put 6 drops of phenolphthalein solution, and in the third put three droppers-full of vinegar.

• Add a few drops of water to the first glass and stir to dissolve the sodium carbonate.

• Fill all the glasses with water from the pitcher, then pour all of them back in the pitcher except for the glass with vinegar.

• Now pour all five glasses back in the pitcher. Best apple crumb pie recipe Refill the glasses one last time – the liquid will be colorless again!

Like the universal indicator, phenolphthalein is a pH indicator, but it only turns colors in reaction to bases. Apple pie with crumb topping recipe When you poured the four glasses back into the pitcher, the phenolphthalein reacted to the sodium carbonate, a base, and turned the solution to red “kool-aid.” To change it back to “water,” all you had to do was add the acidic vinegar, which turned the phenolphthalein colorless again.

Invisible inks are also called sympathetic inks, and can be made with many different substances. Homemade apple pie with crumb topping recipe Sometimes they appear when you heat them up; other times another chemical can reveal them. Caramel apple pie recipe crumb top Get creative and see how many kinds of invisible ink you can find. Best apple pie with crumb topping recipe What You Need:

• Ink type 1 – lemon juice, grapefruit juice, vinegar, milk, onion juice

• Choose a liquid like lemon juice to use as ink. Caramel apple pie with crumb topping recipe Write a message on a piece of white paper using a paintbrush or q-tip, dipping in the ink frequently. Caramel apple pie crumb topping recipe Let the message dry. Apple crumb pie recipe with oatmeal Turn on the toaster and carefully hold your paper over it. Apple crumb pie recipes with fresh apples The heat will make your secret writing appear!

• Some sympathetic inks appear and disappear again based on humidity. Recipe for apple crumb pie topping To try one of these, make a solution of 1/8 teaspoon cobalt chloride and 1/2 cup water. Recipe for apple crumb pie After writing your message and letting it dry, heat the paper to see your message appear in blue. Easy dutch apple pie topping recipe Now hold the paper face down over a pan of steaming water. Easy apple pie crisp recipe The steam will cause the writing to disappear. Apple pie crumble recipe oats If you reheat it (evaporating all the water) the writing will appear again.

• Other sympathetic inks work because of acid-base reactions. Apple crumble pie recipe jamie oliver Use phenolphthalein solution to write a message on a piece of paper and let it dry. Apple crumble pie recipe nigella After it is dry, spray it with some Windex. Easy apple crisp pie recipe Since Windex is a base, it will turn the phenolphthalein bright pink.

What other sympathetic inks can you find? Which kind shows up best? Which kind lasts longest?

Inks and dyes are generally made up of a mixture of different colors. Easy caramel apple crumble pie recipe Chromatography is a process that lets you separate ink into its individual colors. Recipe dutch apple crumb pie What You Need:

• Filter paper (paper towels or coffee filters will work too, but filter paper is best)

• Black marker or felt-tip pens, highlighters (non primary colors)

• Cut several strips of filter paper about a half-inch wide. Recipe apple pie crumb topping best Draw a big dot about a half-inch from the bottom of one of the strips with one of the markers or pens you want to test. Best apple pie recipe with streusel topping Do the same thing on different strips for each pen you want to test.

• Tape the strip to a pencil so that when the pencil rests across the cup the strip will hang down into the cup.

• Pour water into each cup until it is just barely touching the bottom of the paper strip. Apple pie crisp topping recipe Leave the strip hanging in the water until the color has traveled most of the way up the strip.

As the water creeps up the absorbent paper, it carries the color with it. Apple pie streusel topping recipe Some components of the ink travel farther than others, causing the different colors to spread out so you can see them. Easy apple pie crumble topping recipe How many colors do you see? Do the different brands of pens have different colors?

Many dyes are also made up of multiple colors. Apple pie crumb topping recipe food network Try a chromatography experiment with some food coloring. Best apple pie crumble topping recipe Place a drop of food coloring in some water and hang a filter paper strip so it just barely touches the water. Apple pie recipe crumble topping oatmeal Does it separate into colors? Try mixing more than one color of food coloring and then see if you can separate them again with chromatography.

Every fall we watch amazing chemistry color changes happen all around us. Apple pie recipe crumb topping best Trees that were green all year suddenly become bright yellow, orange, red, or even purple! How does this happen?

There are three types of chemical color pigments in green leaves: chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Best streusel apple pie recipe Chlorophyll is the dominant green pigment used throughout the summer in the production of food by photosynthesis. Best apple crisp pie recipe Carotenoids are pigments that give yellow, orange, or brown colors and are present all summer. Apple crumb pie recipe oatmeal Anthocyanins cause reds and purples and are produced in the fall. Best apple streusel pie recipe During the summer months, the leaves are so full of chlorophyll that green overpowers any other colors present in the leaves, such as yellow and orange. Best apple cinnamon pie recipe Even though carotenoids may be present in the leaves, we can’t see them because the chlorophyll is so strong.

In the fall the days start to get shorter and the temperature drops, signaling to the tree that it is time to go into storage mode for the winter. Best apple pie crisp recipe The chlorophyll starts to break down, causing the green in the leaves to disappear, and allowing us to see the colors of the carotenoids, which were present all along. Easy cinnamon apple pie recipe Most of the sugars and starches produced by the chlorophyll in the leaves are brought back into the tree, but when excess sugar is left in the leaves, anthocyanins are produced. Easy cinnamon roll apple pie recipe (Bright light also helps to form these red pigments.)

Eventually a separation layer of cells builds up where the leaf is connected to the branch of the tree, blocking the transport of sugars from the leaf to the tree. Simple apple crisp pie recipe When this layer is complete, the wind or the weight of the leaves themselves will cause the leaves to fall from the tree. Apple crisp pie recipe food network Beneath the tree the layer of fallen leaves decomposes throughout the winter, returning nutrients back to the soil, which makes the topsoil fertile for more plants to grow in the next year.

Explore the pigments inside a green leaf by doing a leaf chromatography experiment! The setup is similar to the chromatography project above, but this time you use rubbing alcohol to help break down the chlorophyll.

– Toothpaste is a base that cancels the effect of the acids in your mouth

– Medicine for upset stomachs, like Tums, contain bases that help neutralize the acid in your stomach

– Many insect stings are acidic. Apple crumb pie food network The pain can be relieved by using a base, like baking soda.

Musical Spy. Apple crisp pie recipe In World War I a German spy named Courtney de Rysbach traveled Britain as a very popular entertainer. Caramel apple crumb pie southern living He wrote messages in invisible ink on sheets of music. Dutch apple crumb pie recipe oatmeal He was eventually caught and spent the rest of the war in jail.

– Watch an animated movie and take a fun quiz about why leaves change color in the fall.

– Play around with pH when you serve drinks to aliens in this fun online game.

– Learn about how spies have used invisible inks through the ages!

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