Michigan state university _ community sustainability – academia. edu

ABSTRACT The globally celebrated Olympic Winter Games (OWG) are highly dependent on suitable snow and ice conditions to support elite-level competitions. Sugar pine To determine the range of weather impacts on the Games, this study examines the… Sugar pine point state park more

ABSTRACT The globally celebrated Olympic Winter Games (OWG) are highly dependent on suitable snow and ice conditions to support elite-level competitions. Sugar pine railroad To determine the range of weather impacts on the Games, this study examines the official Olympic post-Games reports from 1924 to 2010. Sugar sin Impacts include preparations for the Games, holding outdoor opening–closing ceremonies, outdoor sporting competitions, spectator comfort, transportation, and television broadcasts.


Sugar restaurant The study also examines the range of historical adaptations that have developed to manage weather risks at the OWG. Popsugar careers Three adaptation eras are identified, spanning the history of the games: emergent adaptation, technological transition, and advanced adaptation. Cane sugar Analysis reveals that while weather-induced impacts have always been a part of the Games, these impacts would be far greater if not for technical climatic adaptations. Sugar cane With the average daytime temperature of host locations steadily increasing from 0.4°C at the Games held in the 1920–1950s to 7.8°C at the Games held in the twenty-first century, it would be difficult to imagine recent host cities/regions successfully delivering the diverse Games programme exclusively on natural ice and snow. Unrefined cane sugar The connection between the evolving needs for weather risk management strategies by Olympic organisers and the growth of the Olympics in size and scope is also discussed.

In the light of emerging debates about increasing agricultural production and food security for rural farmers in developing countries, this paper examines the effects of household wealth on adoption and use intensity of improved maize… Brown cane sugar more

In the light of emerging debates about increasing agricultural production and food security for rural farmers in developing countries, this paper examines the effects of household wealth on adoption and use intensity of improved maize varieties (IMVs) in two agro-ecological regions of central Nepal. White cane sugar Using cross-sectional farm-level data from 416 households, we first categorized households into two wealth groups – poorly endowed and well-endowed households – and then estimated Cragg’s double-hurdle model for adoption and use intensity of IMVs for each group. Sugar cane processing The study found the presence of heterogeneous factors influencing adoption and intensity of adoption between poorly and well-endowed households, suggesting a need for wealth-group-specific policy interventions to increase adoption of IMVs and their subsequent impacts on food security. Brown sugar cane The results also indicated that the availability of seed in local retail outlets will benefit especially the poorly endowed farmers because distance to market showed a negative impact on adoption and intensity of adoption of IMVs. Planting sugar cane Therefore, government should establish a wide seed distribution network in rural areas, preferably by way of a public-private partnership (PPP), if the desired adoption rate and intensity of adoption are to be achieved. Cane sugar nutrition Linking farmers to markets by integrating farmers with potential buyers could help reduce transaction costs and make agriculture more profitable.

The use of improved high yielding crop varieties is an important avenue for reducing hunger and food insecurity in developing countries. Sugar cane growing Using cross-sectional data obtained from a survey conducted during 2013 crop season, we performed a… Cane sugar healthy more

The use of improved high yielding crop varieties is an important avenue for reducing hunger and food insecurity in developing countries. Sugar cane healthy Using cross-sectional data obtained from a survey conducted during 2013 crop season, we performed a probit model (plot-level analysis) to determine the probability of adopting new improved rice varieties (NIRVs) by smallholder farmers particularly from two main agro-ecological regions (hills and tropical plain terai regions) of Central Nepal. Cane sugar benefits The results revealed that education, extension services and seed access play significant roles in adoption decisions. Processing sugar cane Additionally, farm and field characteristic variables such as farm size, endowment of favorable land type (e.g. Sugar cane skewers lowlands), and animal power (e.g. Sugar cane honey oxen) are the key factors influencing the probability of adopting NIRVs. How to plant sugar cane The results showed that technology specific variables (e.g. Sugar cane food yield potential and acceptability) are significant for explaining adoption behavior, implying that it is important to take farmers’ preferences to varietal characteristics into consideration in the design of a research and development program. Is cane sugar bad for you Given the significant role played by extension and access related variables, increased emphasis on information dissemination, field demonstration, and farmers’ participatory research and training programs to popularize new rice varieties and enhance their adoption rate are required. Cane sugar vs white sugar This also suggests that policy intervention should be made on improving the educational status of farming households, and developing programs on varietal package of rice seed which offer farmers a variety of choices among the appropriate pools of germplasm. Beet sugar vs cane sugar Such programs ultimately help farmers develop more profit-oriented behavior which are necessary to enhance adoption rate, production and food security in the long run.

In the last decades, rice yields in South Asian countries grew tremendously in one hand and a noticeable yield fluctuation on the other. Red sugar cane The objective of this study was to examine the rice yield distributions, estimate yield risks at… Where is sugar cane grown more

In the last decades, rice yields in South Asian countries grew tremendously in one hand and a noticeable yield fluctuation on the other. Sugar cane industry The objective of this study was to examine the rice yield distributions, estimate yield risks at country level, and compare risks between five countries namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. What is sugar cane used for Anderson Darling (AD) test was applied to test the goodness-of-fit for four distributions by using country level de-trended rice yields from 1961 to 2010. Is cane sugar healthy Results showed the Normal distribution was fitted well in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka, whereas the Weibull distribution in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Cane sugar vs brown sugar The average yield risks at 85% of the expected yield were found 5.29, 4.27, 3.86, 1.55, and .15% in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, respectively. Is cane sugar good for you Wilcoxon signed rank test results of mean absolute percentage differences showed yield risk in Bangladesh was significantly lower than the rest four counties and t…

This article examines the adoption of new-generation modern rice varieties (MRVs) and their impact on family welfare among rural farm households in central Nepal. Cane sugar vs sugar Using cross-sectional data from 416 farm households and the Heckman’s… Maui sugar cane more

This article examines the adoption of new-generation modern rice varieties (MRVs) and their impact on family welfare among rural farm households in central Nepal. Is cane sugar bad Using cross-sectional data from 416 farm households and the Heckman’s sample selection model, this article finds a positive and significant impact of MRVs on farm income; distance to market and off-farm work exert a negative effect on farm income. What is evaporated cane sugar The likelihood of adoption is mainly explained by age and education of the household head, access to extension services, seed access and acceptability of the rice grain to consumers. Cane sugar vs beet sugar The results further reveal that farm size and land type have significant and positive influences on the adoption of MRVs. Brown sugar vs cane sugar Designing mechanisms to help promote MRVs’ adoption among poorer households by developing new varieties suited for rain-fed areas may be a reasonable policy instrument to increase farm incomes. Sugar beet vs sugar cane The results of this study suggest that because of the difficulties and costs of transportation and travel to distant markets, availability of seed in local retail outlets will benefit the farmers. What is pure cane sugar To reduce transaction costs, farmers need to be linked to markets by a wide seed distribution network. Calories in cane sugar Integrating farmers with potential buyers may increase profitability in agriculture and its subsequent impacts on rural farmers’ food security and general livelihood.

Since the turn of the century, biofuels have been promoted not only for their potential to mitigate climate change and address energy security but also for the potential benefits to socio-ecological systems. Cane vs beet sugar However, the purported benefits were almost immediately called into question as evidence began to emerge of the potential negative consequences of biofuel production. How is sugar cane grown Recent debates have highlighted the social impacts, particularly land access and food security, yet much of the academic literature on these social impacts remains in high level. How is sugar cane processed This paper identifies peer-reviewed literature that documents the social impacts of biofuel expansion at the local (household and community) scale. Organic cane sugar vs white sugar A systematic review identified just seventeen research papers that presented evidence of the local livelihood impacts of biofuel production and processing. How to make sugar cane Three issues emerge from the review as especially important at the local level: household economics, food security and ecosystem services. Cane sugar vs refined sugar Within the research, there is a bias towards the cultivation of Jatropha curcas in particular geographies (Africa and Asia). Benefits of cane sugar The evidence also shows that the costs and benefits are unevenly distributed within and between communities, with consequences for the ways in which social, economic and environmental impacts are experienced. How to use sugar cane We conclude by arguing that more evidence on the impacts of biofuels at the local level is desperately needed in order to demystify this complex issue and stimulate a more nuanced understanding of the winners and losers of this commodity.

This article identifies equity outcomes associated with three biofuel systems in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Guatemala. Difference between cane sugar and white sugar Acknowledging that winners and losers are socially and politically generated, the article identifies some of the factors… Sugar cane history more

This article identifies equity outcomes associated with three biofuel systems in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Guatemala. Is cane sugar refined Acknowledging that winners and losers are socially and politically generated, the article identifies some of the factors behind the distribution of winners and losers along different stages of three sugarcane–ethanol supply chains. Cane sugar vs granulated sugar Analyzing the outcomes for equity within each case study reveals an uneven distribution that, we argue, is related to the procedure and structure of the given sugarcane–ethanol system, and the recognition of the impacts on different actors within those structures. Sugar cane harvest season Increasing equity in sugarcane–ethanol systems will require greater openness in decision-making processes, in order that multiple voices are taken into account in the promotion, production, and consumption of biofuels—particularly those of smaller and less powerful actors.

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