Reliability. eric digest

ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation College Park MD.

All tests contain error. Fried chicken definition This is true for tests in the physical sciences and

for educational and psychological tests. Kentucky fried chicken uk menu In measuring length with a ruler, for

example, there may be systematic error associated with where the zero point is

printed on the ruler and random error associated with your eye’s ability to read

the marking and extrapolate between the markings.

Organic chicken uk It is also possible that the

length of the object can vary over time and environment (e.g., with changes in

temperature). Roast chicken uk One goal in assessment is to keep these errors down to levels that

are appropriate for the purposes of the test. Kentucky fried chicken uk High-stakes tests, such as

licensure examinations, need to have very little error. Dixie chicken uk Classroom tests can

tolerate more error because it is fairly easy to spot and correct mistakes made

during the testing process. Hunters chicken uk Reliability focuses only on the degree of errors

Reliability has been defined in different ways by different authors. Southern fried chicken uk Perhaps

the best way to look at reliability is the extent to which the measurements

resulting from a test are the result of characteristics of those being measured.

For example, reliability has elsewhere been defined as “the degree to which test

scores for a group of test takers are consistent over repeated applications of a

measurement procedure and hence are inferred to be dependable and repeatable for

an individual test taker” (Berkowitz, Wolkowitz, Fitch, and Kopriva, 2000). Chicken cloaca This

definition will be satisfied if the scores are indicative of properties of the

test takers; otherwise they will vary unsystematically and not be repeatable or

Reliability can also be viewed as an indicator of the absence of random error

when the test is administered. Chicken cloaca anatomy When random error is minimal, scores can be

expected to be more consistent from administration to administration.

Technically, the theoretical definition of reliability is the proportion of

score variance that is caused by systematic variation in the population of

test-takers. Chicken cloaca function This definition is population-specific. Chicken anatomy chart If there is greater

systematic variation in one population than another, such as in all public

school students compared with only eighth-graders, the test will have greater

reliability for the more varied population. Hunters chicken recipe uk This is a consequence of how

reliability is defined. Kentucky fried chicken ukraine Reliability is a joint characteristic of a test and

examinee group, not just a characteristic of a test. Kentucky fried chicken uk prices Indeed, reliability of any

one test varies from group to group. Texas chicken uk Therefore, the better research studies will

report the reliability for their sample as well as the reliability for norming

This Digest discusses sources of error, several approaches toward estimating

factors in the test itself, factors in the students taking the test, and scoring

factors. Organic chicken feed uk Most tests contain a collection of items that represent particular

skills. Chicken pox definition for kids We typically generalize from each item to all items like that item. Kentucky fried chicken menu uk prices For

example, if a student can solve several problems like 7 times 8, then we may

generalize his or her ability to multiply single-digit integers. Chicken cloacal prolapse We also

generalize from the collection of items to a broader domain. Chicken diagram If a student does

well on a test of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of

fractions, then we may generalize and conclude that the student is able to

perform fraction operations. Chicken infection But error may be introduced by the selection of

particular items to represent the skills and domains. Chicken infection symptoms The particular

cross-section of test content that is included in the specific items on the test

will vary with each test form, introducing sampling error and limiting the

dependability of the test, since we are generalizing to unobserved data, namely,

ability across all items that could have been on the test. Chicken cannibalism On basic arithmetic

skills, one would expect the content to be fairly similar, making it relatively

easy to build a highly reliable test. Chicken cannibalism treatment As the skills and domains become more

complex, more errors are likely introduced by sampling of items. Chicken cannibalism glasses Other sources

of test error include the effectiveness of the distractors (wrong options) in

multiple choice tests, partially correct distractors, multiple correct answers,

and difficulty of the items relative to the student’s ability.

As human beings, students are not always consistent and also introduce error

into the testing process. Chicken bloody stool Whether a test is intended to measure typical or

optimal student performance, changes in such things as student’s attitudes,

health, and sleep may affect the quality of their efforts and thus their

test-taking consistency. Chicken bloody mary For example, test takers may make careless errors,

misinterpret test instructions, forget test instructions, inadvertently omit

Scoring errors are a third potential source of error. Chicken images drawings On objective tests, the

scoring is mechanical, and scoring error should be minimal. Chicken images free On

constructed-response items, sources of error include clarity of the scoring

rubrics, clarity of what is expected of the student, and a host of rater errors.

Raters are not always consistent, sometimes change their criteria while scoring,

and are subject to biases such as the halo effect, stereotyping, perception

differences, leniency/stringency error, and scale shrinkage (see Rudner, 1992).

reliability coefficient that conforms to the theoretical definition. Chicken images funny Recall, the

theoretical definition depends on knowing the degree to which a population of

examinees vary in their true achievement (or whatever the test measures). Chicken images clip art But if

we knew that, then we wouldn’t need the test! Instead, there are several

statistics (coefficients) commonly used to estimate the stability of a set of

test scores for a group of examinees: test-retest reliability, split-half

reliability, measures of internal consistency, and alternate form reliability

Test-retest reliability. Chicken images cartoon A test-retest reliability coefficient is obtained by

administering the same test twice and correlating the scores. Chicken images In concept, it is

an excellent measure of score consistency because it allows the direct

measurement of consistency from administration to administration. Chicken function This

coefficient is not recommended in practice, however, because of its problems and

limitations. How do you say chicken gizzards in spanish It requires two administrations of the same test with the same

group of individuals. How to cook chicken gizzards for dogs This is expensive and not a good use of people’s time. Chicken prolapsed uterus If

the time interval is short, people may be overly consistent because they

remember some of the questions and their responses. Chicken prolapse If the interval is long,

then the results are confounded with learning and maturation, that is, changes

Split-half reliability. Chicken prolapsed oviduct As the name suggests, split-half reliability is a

coefficient obtained by dividing a test into halves, correlating the scores on

each half, and then correcting for length (longer tests tend to be more

reliable). Chicken gizzards and rice The split can be based on odd versus even numbered items, randomly

selecting items, or manually balancing content and difficulty. Chicken gizzards in crock pot This approach has

an advantage in that it only requires a single test administration. Chicken gizzards what are they Its weakness

is that the resultant coefficient will vary as a function of how the test was

split. Chicken wing diagram labeled It is also not appropriate on tests in which speed is a factor (that is,

where students’ scores are influenced by how many items they reached in the

Internal consistency. Chicken outline Internal consistency focuses on the degree to which the

individual items are correlated with each other and is thus often called

homogeneity. Chicken ear infection symptoms Several statistics fall within this category. Chicken causing bladder infections The best known are

Cronbach’s alpha, the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) and the

Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 (KR-21). Chicken and urinary tract infections Most testing programs that report data from

one administration of a test to students do so using Cronbach’s alpha, which is

The advantages of these statistics are that they only require one test

administration and that they do not depend on a particular split of items. Chicken treatment The

disadvantage is that they are most applicable when the test measures a single

Requiring only the test mean, standard deviation (or variance), and the

number of items, the Kuder-Richardson formula 21 is an extremely simple

reliability formula. How to stop chicken cannibalism While it will almost always provide coefficients that are

lower than KR-20, its simplicity makes it a very useful estimate of reliability,

especially for evaluating some classroom-developed tests. Whole chicken bloody mary However, it should not

be used if the test has items that are scored other than just zero or one.

Where M is the mean, k is the number of items, and v is the test variance.

Alternate-form reliability. Sobelman’s fried chicken bloody mary Most standardized tests provide equivalent forms

that can be used interchangeably. Fried chicken bloody mary These alternate forms are typically matched in

terms of content and difficulty. Chicken glasses The correlation of scores on pairs of alternate

forms for the same examinees provides another measure of consistency or

reliability. Chicken glasses storage wars Even with the best test and item specifications, each test would

contain slightly different content and, as with test-retest reliability,

maturation and learning may confound the results. Chicken glasses video However, the use of different

items in the two forms conforms to our goal of including the extent to which

item sets contribute to random errors in estimating test reliability.

report reliability coefficients that exceed .80 and often exceed .90. Chicken glasses for sale The

questions to ask are 1) What are the consequences of the test? and 2) Is the

group used to compute the reported reliability similar to my group?

If the consequences are high, as in tests used for special education

placement, high school graduation, and professional certification, then the

internal consistency reliability needs to be quite high–at least above .90,

preferably above .95. Chicken glasses patent Misclassifications due to measurement error should be kept

to a minimum. Chicken kissing game And please note that no test should ever be used by itself to make

Classroom tests seldom need to have exceptionally high reliability

coefficients. Chicken with bloody stool As more students master the content, test variability will go down

and so will the coefficients from internal measures of reliability. Cartoon chicken images free Further,

classroom tests don’t need exceptionally high reliability coefficients. Fried chicken images free Teachers

see their students all day and have opportunities to gather input from a variety

of information sources. Chicken images free clip art Teacher knowledge and judgment, used along with

information from the test, provides superior information. Chicken liver function If a test is not

reliable or it is not accurate for an individual, teachers can and should make

the appropriate corrections. Chicken video recipes A reliability coefficient of .50 or .60 may

Again, reliability is a joint characteristic of a test and examinee group,

not just a characteristic of a test. Chicken video game Thus, reliability also needs to be

evaluated in terms of the examinee group. Chicken videos A test with a reliability of .92 when

administered to students in 4th, 5th, and 6th grades will not have as high a

reliability when administered just to a group of 4th graders.

Developing better tests with less random measurement error is better than

simply documenting the amount of error. Chicken machine embroidery designs Measurement error is reduced by writing

items clearly, making the instructions easily understood, adhering to proper

test administration, and providing consistent scoring. Chicken machine Because a test is a

sample of the desired skills and behaviors, longer tests, which are larger

samples, will be more reliable. Chicken images black and white A one-hour end-of-unit exam will be more

Psychological Testing. Liver of chicken New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.

Berkowitz, D., Wolkowitz, B., Fitch, R., Kopriva, R. How to make chicken gizzards and rice (2000). How to cook chicken gizzards and rice The Use of Tests

as Part of High-Stakes Decision-Making for Students: A Resources Guide for

Educators and Policy-Makers. Chicken masala tikka Washington, DC: U.S. Chicken masala curry Department of Education.

Lyman, H. Chicken masala indian recipe B. Chicken masala bajias cooking (1993). Chicken masala powder Test Scores and What They Mean. Chicken masala calories Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

McMillan, J. Chicken masala indian style H. Chicken masala (2001). Chicken masala slow cooker Essential Assessment Concepts for Teachers and

Administrators. Chicken marinades easy Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing Company.

Nunnally, J. Chicken marinades for baking C. Chicken marinades and rubs (1967). Chicken marinades with orange juice Psychometric Theory (Chapters 6 and 7). Chicken marinades recipes New York:

Popham, W. Chicken marinades for bbq James (1998). Chicken marinades Classroom Assessment, What Teachers Need to Know.

Rudner, Lawrence M. Chicken marinades with lime (1992). Chicken marinades for baked chicken Reducing errors due to the use of judges.

Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 3(3). Chicken marinades for grilling [Available online:

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