The truth behind china’s agricultural success – the manila times online easy italian dinner party recipes

In response FAO immediately sent a four-man agricultural extension mission to china headed by dr. Dioscoro umali, assistant director general for asia and the pacific with dr. Tito contado, agricultural extension senior officer as the mission secretary; peter meyer, agronomist and collen fraser, development communication chief.

“under the responsibility system, the FAO extension mission recommended the following which was used as the basis in formulating an agricultural cxtension project in a huge china: 1) the county as the operational unit of the national agricultural extension service of china. A county has a population of between 500,000 to more than one million; china then had responsible local governments in 2,300 counties in 19 huge provinces (small enough to be close to the farmers, small enough to shorten bureaucratic red tape and big enough to have economies of scale in each operation; 2) the county must have an operational and administrative extension center, called the county agro technological extension center (CATEC); 3) the CATEC should have three functions: a) experimentation, b) training and communication and c) dissemination and advisory service.Agricultural extension


“(note: the experimentation division of the CATEC had all the needed subject matter specialists; they had testing laboratories; they had a demonstration farm, this is the link with agricultural research institutions/specialists at the higher level);

“4) governing body CATEC consisted of two county officials (one representing local government and one representing agriculture), one communist party representative, one provincial agriculture representative and one national agriculture representative; 4) joint or shared funding: 50 percent county, 30 percent provincial and 20 percent national).

“from this mission’s recommendation two pilot catecs were launched in 1984 with FAO’s TCP project funds and chinese government counterpart funds. The two pilot catecs were in wuxian county of jaingshou province with 68 million population and shuangliu county in sichuan province of 110 million.Agricultural extension

“after one year of pilot operation of the two catecs, minister of agriculture he kang visited the two catecs and declared: a) that this is the china agricultural extension model and b) in 10 years, all the counties in china would have catecs! To achieve this goal, FAO advised to adopt the radiation strategy of covering the entire china with catecs. The country was divided into two parts with nine provinces each. Each province selected a county to establish pilot CATEC for the province. The designated pilot CATEC leaders/officials were trained in one of the original national pilot catecs.

“in turn, these provincial pilot catecs became the training centers for the leaders and officials of the catecs of the counties within the province.Labor force in 1990 china made a WB loan of $120 million to strengthen agricultural services, of which $80 million were loaned to counties which needed funds to establish their catecs. Under the responsibility system, the county that used the WB money were responsible in the payment of the WB loan. By 1995, 85 percent of the counties in china had catecs.

“agricultural output went up and the labor force in agriculture decreased from 73 percent to 37 percent. It was reported that in the year 2000, the farming labor force was down to 10 percent which means that the 10 percent farmers had much bigger landholdings that they could mechanize and much higher income. Peasantry and poverty in agriculture disappeared except in provinces and counties which had poor resources and less development motivated people.Pilot catecs

“it must be noted that since premier deng advocated the four principles for china to move forward, industrialization, construction, trade, services, transportation and other economic sectors developed nation-wide. These fast developments in all sectors of the economy underlined by capitalism, open market, modernization and responsibility system absorbed 63 percent of the excess labor force in agriculture.

“therefore, in the case of china, modernization of agriculture, higher income of farmers and wiping out most of poverty in agriculture is a part of nationwide economic development underlined by a) capitalism, b) open markets, c) modernization in every aspect of life and of the economy, and d) responsibility of every citizen and every unit in society.Pilot catecs

2) the four principles to move china forward once enunciated by the national leadership, became the new ideology of china’s development which was followed and elaborated by all sectors of society.

3) the officials and people that I worked with were open-minded, eager to learn new ideas and things from other countries, sincere, business-like, committed to progress and responsible.

4) that huge investments in the non-agricultural sector, particularly in industrialization (including the manufacture of farm machineries) is investment for agricultural development.

5) the agricultural extension service set up in china is not complicated, it is easy to implement, cost-effective to operate and easy to monitor and determine accountability and impact.Pilot catecs

6) to ensure national food security, each farmer who leases state land must meet the quota of wheat and rice which is collected and paid by the government agency.

“the state can change the farmer if consistently he failed to meet the quota, but any produce in excess of the quota, the farmer can sell it himself in the open market. In the 1980s, there were progressive farmers who grew rice or wheat to meet the quota in, say, half of the farm and in the other half they planted cash crops and vegetables.

Naturally, and of course, china has totally forgotten the services —and the value and long-term effects—of the help of dr. Umali and dr. Contado. After all, their national interest comes first. But so must ours, to us. And the asean’s too, in dealing with beijing.Pilot catecs