We ordinarily think of turkeys as impotent prey animals. How to cook chicken liver and gizzard However, in Hocak thought, the king of birds, Rusewe, is none other than a turkey. Grilled chicken gizzard recipe How does an innocuous bird hold such a position of power and dominance over all others of its kind? The answer lies in the fact that the fletchings of Hocak arrows are made of turkey feathers. Puerto rican chicken gizzard recipe 1 Turkey feathers are preferred because blood does not affect them.

Chicken gizzard recipe panlasang pinoy 2 The use of turkey feathers as the “wings” of an arrow was widespread, and may have been nearly universal among the eastern tribes. Korean chicken gizzard recipe 3 Turkey feathers were so valuable that tribes outside the turkey’s range were prepared to pay a high price to get them. Deep fried chicken gizzard recipe 4 The wing feathers were most prized for fletchings. Chicken gizzard nutrition facts 5 By soaking the feathers in warm water, the quills could be easily split, and the detached vanes glued into place along the shaft. Is chicken gizzard healthy 6 Of the Indians of Virginia, Governor Beverley wrote, “They fledged their arrows with Turkey Feathers, which they fastened with Glue made of the Velvet Horns of a Deer.” 7 The Hocagara differed only in using glue from the sturgeon. What is a gizzard on a chicken 8 By fletching an arrow with turkey wing feathers, the arrow itself takes flight as a kind of turkey. Chicken gizzard slow cooker recipe This makes the turkey the deadliest of all creatures. What is a gizzard in a chicken Thus in one story, Turkey kills Wolf by kicking his ribs inside out. Whats a chicken gizzard 9 This might refer to the action of an arrow, which when it comes partially out the other side, is like a rib kicked inside out. Chicken gizzard korean This “foot” of an arrow is sometimes armed with a turtle claw, which would correspond to the clawed foot of the turkey. Chicken gizzard salad recipe 10

Another very strange fact about turkeys associates them with the opposite end of the arrow, the arrow point. Chicken gizzard sisig recipe Like the turkey, most birds have a second stomach, the ventriculum, more commonly known as the “gizzard.” This part of the digestive tract compensates for a bird’s want of teeth. Chicken gizzard recipe kerala style On occasion a bird will swallow a small, rough stone, usually less than 2 cm in diameter. What part of the chicken is a gizzard 11 Such stones are collected in the gizzard where they masticate food by pressing and rotating these stones around it. What is the gizzard of a chicken The turkey in particular has been known to swallow small stone arrowheads that it finds lying upon the ground. Chicken gizzard stew slow cooker The archaeologist Larry Kinsella, says,

I recently heard a story about a woman who worked in a plant that processed turkeys. Is chicken gizzard healthy to eat They raised the birds near the plant in an area where there were Stone Age sites. What part of a chicken is the gizzard This woman, after 30 years of working there, had found 32 arrow points amongst the gizzard stones that she would deliberately try to look through. Chicken gizzard gravy recipe She estimated approximately 80,000 turkeys had gone through her hands. Chicken gizzard recipes indian style So that would come to about one polished gizzard stone arrow point for every 2,500 turkeys! 12

Small arrow points from the Mississippian culture of Cahokia have been found in the gizzards of turkeys from this area in Illinois. Chicken gizzard health benefits A few of these are displayed in the inset picture. What’s a chicken gizzard Given the time and intensity that the Hocagara have spent hunting turkeys, it is impossible not to conclude that from time to time they found such points in turkey gizzards, a fact that must have contributed to the turkey’s standing as the bird of the arrow.

The flight of a turkey is a good analogue to the shooting and flight of an arrow. Chicken gizzard adobo The turkey by intensely flapping its wings can achieve explosive acceleration “sufficient to raise leaves or other forest debris.” 13 “Once in the air it proceeds with strong wing-beats for a hundred yards or so then sails smoothly,” just as the arrow starts off with a strong “wing flap” of enormous acceleration, then sails along in a glide. What does a chicken gizzard do Like an arrow, the flight of a turkey achieves high speeds, sometimes as much as 55-60 m.p.h., 14 but also like the arrow, its flight is of relatively short duration, 15 with most turkeys achieving a range of only one-half to three-quarters of a mile. Gizzard chicken part 16

The arrow also connects the turkey to all-powerful time. Aralia chicken gizzard Turkey once offered himself as a standard for measuring the year. What is the chicken gizzard He said, “Let there be as many moons in a year as there are spots on my tail,” a suggestion rejected by the council of spirits, because Turkey had many tail spots. Function of gizzard in chicken The spots are not the only lunar aspect of Turkey — the word for time in Hocak is ma, the very same word used for “arrow.” So the turkey might well offer himself as the standard for time in his guise as an arrow.

Elsewhere, we learn that the king of all birds, Rusewe, is a turkey. Chicken gizzard function He has hegemony over all birds, as no flying creature can be as deadly as he. Chicken liver and gizzard adobo Rusewe inspires so much fear that the most powerful beings created by the spirits, the Twins, fled from him in panic until they arrived at the safety of Earthmaker’s abode. Chicken gizzard definition 17 Rusewe was not the only contact that the Twins had with turkeys. Chicken gizzard uk When the Twins were still children, their father made them wear turkey “bladders” as headdresses. Where is the chicken gizzard located This headdress prevented Ghost from submerging himself in the lake in which he had hitherto lived 18 (See the Commentary to “The Birth of the Twins”). Chicken gizzard curry recipe Since water represents chaos in world mythology generally, opposition to water represents the spirit of law and order. Chicken liver and gizzard recipe indian Thus Ghost, whose existence is chaotic and free-ranging, is brought into a state of order for the betterment of the human condition. Where is the gizzard on a chicken This image expresses the same meaning as Rusewe driving the Twins helplessly before him to the sanctuary of the ultimate author of order, Earthmaker.

As can be seen from the inset of the wild turkey, it has two pieces of anatomy that suggest a shell necklace. Where is a chicken gizzard located In one story Turkey’s victory in gambling wins for him all the earbobs and necklaces of his opponents. What part of chicken is gizzard He wears the necklaces, but inasmuch as birds do not have external ears, he gives the earbobs to Hog. What is a gizzard chicken 19 In another story, enemy warriors are caught in a lodge as the Hocagara pour boiling water on them. Chicken gizzard nutritional value One tries to escape by turning into a turkey and flying out the smoke hole. Is chicken gizzard good for you However, someone noticed that his shell necklace had twisted around backwards, so he threw a stone hammer at the bird-man and killed him. Chicken gizzard masala 20

Links: Rusewe, Earthmaker, Bird Spirits, Wolf & Dog Spirits, Chipmunks.

Stories: about turkeys: Earthmaker Sends Rusewe to the Twins, Bluehorn’s Nephews, Hog’s Adventures, Black and White Moons, The Birth of the Twins, The Annihilation of the Hocagara I, Old Man and Wears White Feather; about Rusewe: Bluehorn’s Nephews, Earthmaker Sends Rusewe to the Twins; about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Owl Goes Hunting, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge’s Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rusewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Hocak Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother ( kagi, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle’s Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kagi, pelicans, sparrows), Kagiga and Lone Man ( kagi), The Old Man and the Giants ( kagi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Warugapara, The Race for the Chief’s Daughter, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, The Creation Council, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagisega (Wesgisega), The Man Who Would Dream of Ma’una (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Woruxega (eagle), Hocak Clans Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Hocak Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (buzzards), The Shaggy Man ( kagi), The Healing Blessing ( kagi), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth ( kagi), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Icorusika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker’s Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster’s Anus Guards the Ducks, The Fleetfooted Man, The Journey to Spiritland (v. What part of chicken is the gizzard 4) — see also Thunderbirds, and the sources cited there.

Themes: bladders: Bladder, Bladder and His Brothers, Adventures of Redhorn’s Sons (elk), The Birth of the Twins (turkey); someone who is otherwise fearless is deeply afraid of just one thing: Earthmaker Sends Rusewe to the Twins (a turkey), The Brown Squirrel (a red horn), Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear (a thunder-arrow); people turn into birds: Warugapara (owl, Thunderbird), Woruxega (eagle), The Thunderbird (black hawk, hummingbird), The Dipper (black hawk, hummingbird), The Hocak Arrival Myth (ravens), The Annihilation of the Hocagara I (turkey), The Quail Hunter (partridge), The Markings on the Moon (auk, curlew), The Fleetfooted Man (water fowl?), The Boy Who Became a Robin (robin); a young man turns into a bird and flies off through the smoke hole in his lodge: The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Markings on the Moon, The Annihilation of the Hocagara I.

1 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) , 94; Oliver LaMere (Bear Clan) and Harold B. What part is the chicken gizzard Shinn, Winnebago Stories (New York, Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1928) 135; W. Chicken gizzard pate C. What is gizzard of chicken McKern, “A Winnebago Myth,” Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230 [216-217].

2 George Bird Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Their History and Ways of Life. Function of chicken gizzard 2 vols. Chicken gizzard cooking time (New Haven: Cooper Square Press, 1923) 1.181, 1.187, 2.134; A. Chicken gizzard images W. What is the function of a chicken gizzard Schorger, The Wild Turkey: Its History and Domestication (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1966) 361.

3 Schorger, The Wild Turkey, 362. Where is the gizzard located on a chicken Champlain noted their use along the New England coast in 1604. How to clean a chicken gizzard Samuel de Champlain, The Works of Samuel de Champlain, 6 vols. Gizzard function in chicken (Toronto: H. What part of the chicken does the gizzard come from P. What is the purpose of a chicken gizzard Biggar, 1922) 1.360. What does a chicken gizzard look like Their use for this purpose has been observed in Virginia (W. Adobo chicken liver and gizzard Strachey, ” The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia (1612),” Hakluyt Society, 6 (1849): 106), and Maryland (Leonard Calvert, ” A Briefe Relation of the Voyage unto Maryland (1633),” Maryland Historical Society Fund, Publication Number 35 (1899): 26-45 [42]).

5 The Cheyennes preferred turkey feathers for their arrows. What part is a chicken gizzard The tribal sign was made by drawing the right index finger several times across the left forefinger. Chicken gizzard in spanish The preferred interpretation is that this sign indicated ‘stripe people’ or ‘striped-arrow’ from this tribe’s custom of using the striped feathers of the wild turkey in making arrows.” Schorger, The Wild Turkey, 361. Chicken gizzard nutritional info See James Mooney, The Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890, Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1892-93 (Washington, D. Chicken gizzard aralia plant C.: Government Printing Office, 1896) 1024; F. What is a chicken gizzards function W. What does the gizzard do in a chicken Hodge, Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 2 vols. Chicken gizzard dog treats (Washington, D. Purpose of chicken gizzard C.: U.S. Calories chicken gizzards Government Printing Office, 1912) 1.251.

6 George Pfauts Belden, Belden, the White Chief; or, Twelve Years among the Wild Indians of the Plains. Calories in chicken gizzards From the Diaries and Manuscripts of George P. Health benefits of eating chicken gizzard Belden. Recipe for pickled chicken gizzards Edited by Gen. Chicken gizzards rice and gravy James S. Chicken gizzards pressure cooker Brisbin (Cincinnati: E. Fried chicken gizzards nutrition W. Baked chicken gizzards and hearts recipes Starr, 1875) 103.

7 Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia, In Four Parts (London: R. Fried chicken gizzards calories Parker, 1705) 3.60.

9 Charlie Houghton, Untitled, translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, 52-62.

10 In fact, in some tribes, turkey spurs were used as arrow points in the hunting of small game. Calories fried chicken gizzards See Schorger, The Wild Turkey, 363. Chicken gizzard plant care Virginia Indian tribes, such as the Rappahannocks, used them as arrowheads. Recipe for deep fried chicken gizzards See Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia, 3.60; Frank G. Baked chicken gizzards Speck, “The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia,” in Indian Notes and Monographs, 5, #3, ed. Nutritional value of chicken gizzards F. Chicken gizzards in pressure cooker W. How many calories in fried chicken gizzards Hodge (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1925) 25-83 [55]. Calories in fried chicken gizzards The Choctaws in Mississippi also used them. Calories in boiled chicken gizzards See James Robert Adair, The History of the American Indians (London: Edward and Charles Dilly, 1775) 425.

11 Common Loons, for instance, usually have 10-20 pea-sized stones in their gizzards for this purpose. Chicken gizzards healthy In New England, the size ranges from 7.0-23.1 mm, with the mean at 12.5 (the mean is 10.7 in the southeast). Chicken gizzards and hearts Jack F. Best chicken gizzards Barr, “Aspects of Common Loon ( Gavia immer) Feeding Biology on its Breeding Ground,” Hydrobiologia, 321 (1996) 119-144. Italian chicken gizzards J. Health benefits of chicken gizzards Christian Franson, Scott P. Benefits of chicken gizzards Hansen, Mark A. Recipe for fried chicken livers and gizzards Pokras, and Rose Miconi, “Size Characteristics of Stones Ingested by Common Loons,” The Condor, 103, #1 (Feb., 2001) 189-191 [190a].

12 From the LithicCastingLab.com website: Lithic Casting Lab > Recent Additions, p. Chicken gizzards for dogs 4 > #129: 1-31-2003, POLISHED GIZZARD STONE CAHOKIA POINTS. Oven baked chicken gizzards Viewed, August 11, 2009.

14 W. Chicken gizzards for catfish bait C. Best recipe for chicken gizzards Kanoy, How Fast Can a Wild Turkey Fly?, Field and Stream, 40, #11 (1936): 86-87; Schorger, The Wild Turkey, 186.

16 C. Chicken gizzards in a pressure cooker J. How to bake chicken gizzards and hearts Crane, Wild Turkey Shooting, Recreation, 6 (1897): 431-433 [431].

17 Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. Are chicken gizzards healthy for dogs Bollingen Foundation, Special Publications, 3 (1954): 83-84, 97; Winnebago Hero Cycles, 55. Are chicken gizzards healthy for you Informant: Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan, ca. Are chicken gizzards healthy to eat 1912.

18 Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic, 84-87.

19 Houghton in Radin, Notebooks, Winnebago III, #11a, 121-131.

20 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 7-9.

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